rettangolo_nero Glossary

groundwater sampling (environmental)

Sampling of ground water for laboratory analysis using equipment like bailer and/or variable displacement submersible pumps.


Technique for sampling of soil, concrete or masonry structures in reinforced concrete cylindrical (carrots) and based on the use of core drilling or drilling probes.

Environmental characterization

Set of investigations, inspections and analysis of geological character and physical-chemical aimed at defining the status of environmental contamination of soils and surface waters and groundwaters in a given site.

Geotechnical characterization

Set of surveys, tests and analysis of geological and geotechnical character aimed at the definition of the nature and geotechnical properties (Geotechnical model) subsurface volume examined.

Conditioning of holes

Installation in boreholes of inclinometer and piezometric pipes, tracking equipment of hydro-geological and geotechnical parameters.

Geognostica survey

Mineral exploration activities conducted with geomechanical methods (drilling and surveys) and geophysical methods.

Geophysical surveys

Collection of evidence and mineral exploration activities conducted using instrumental measurements to define the physical properties of the soil volume investigated such as the speed of propagation of elastic waves, density, electrical conductivity, magnetic characteristics of reflectivity, etc.

Geotechnical investigations

Geotechnical tests and collection of assets for the investigation of the subsoil conducted both in the field (on site) in the laboratory for the determination of geological and geotechnical characteristics (permeability, mechanical strength, etc.) of land on a particular site.

High-accuracy levelling

Surveying technique for the relief of altimetric points, most often applied to the structural monitoring of buildings, monuments and structures in General.

Piezometric measurements

Detection of water levels of groundwater geognostic purposes, or for hydrogeological monitoring of groundwater aquifers.


In part, structural and environmental geotechnical the "monitoring" is understood to be monitoring the evolution of phenomena such as soil deformations, hydro-geological parameters, fissures, cracks, lesions, and inclinations of structures and buildings, subsoil contamination etc., with reliefs and prolonged measures over time.

Remote monitoring

Detection technique in electronic, automatic time and distance learning using on-line technologies for structural monitoring, environmental and geotechnical parameters of interest.

Vibrometrico monitoring

Long-term relief the magnitude of vibration generated in three directions x, y and z on the ground or on a given structure from a variety of sources and measured using electronic detection tools.

Tests with flat jacks

Test method for structural diagnosis based on experimental measurements in situ deformability characteristics of a significant portion of the wall through the use of special flat load cells (flat jacks) stuck into the wall.

Structural diagnostic tests

The examinations, tests and structural surveys conducted using nondestructive methods is, that invasive (direct and probing essays), for the identification of properties of r.c. structures or walls of a building or monument complex.

Load tests

Tests and surveys conducted to test or verify – through experimental measurements of bearing capacity of soils and concrete structures such as slabs, pilings, etc.

Non-destructive testing

The examinations, tests and surveys conducted using methods that do not alter the material and do not require the destruction or the removal of samples from the structure under consideration aimed at research and identification of structural defects of the structure itself. Among the main types of tests: concrete hammer, combined ultrasonic, SONREB, pull-out, pacometriche.

Penetration tests

Geotechnical survey methodology of subsoil based on in-situ experimental measurement of the characteristics of mechanical resistance offered by a static or dynamic penetration of a conical tip placed underground.

Topographic surveys

Execution of measures of angles, distances and elevation performed using equipment like total stations and GPS i/o for reconstruction and impersonation graphics, detailed, more or less of a particular area of emphasis.

Structural and architectural survey

Execution of measurements of geometric and structural characteristics of artifacts and building structures made using instruments such as total stations, disto and/or nondestructive detection tools for reconstruction and impersonation graphics, more or less detail, architectural development and structural caratterishche.

↓ Seismic refraction

Methodology of geophysical survey to be carried out on the surface (seismic stendimenti) or in boreholes suitably packaged (down-hole seismic tests, cross-hole) based on the speed of propagation of elastic waves refracted in the subsoil.

Geological and geotechnical surveys

Underground drilling activities conducted by mechanical means (augers and probes) for sampling of subsoil and geotechnical tests on site (S.P.T. tests, permeability tests Lefranc-Lugeon then, etc.).

Seismic/electric stringing

Line along which speed measurements of the propagation of seismic waves in the subsoil or electrical resistivity to derive information about the features, hydrological, geotechnical stratigraphic of the medium traversed.